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How to make Good Red Wine from Red Grapes

Subject:

Science  

Grades:

10, 11, 12  

Title – How to make Good Red Wine from Red Grapes
By – Francoise Nicolasa
Primary Subject – Science
Secondary Subjects – Biology, Chemistry, Home Economics
Grade Level – 10, 11, 12

This method was used to make Shiraz 2008 wine.

Objectives:

1. Students will learn to make red Shiraz wine.

2. Students will learn and calculate formulas.

3. Students will improve their logic in science and maths.

4. Students will learn the processes of fermentation, and associated chemical processes.

Materials needed:

  1. Tartaric Acid.
  2. Sulphur Dioxide (tablet form).
  3. Rain water (10L).
  4. 25kg Sun ripened Shiraz red grapes at approximately 13Be’ sugar level.
  5. Packet of wine yeast at least 25g.
  6. Packet of malo bugs.

Equipment needed:

  1. 250mL measuring cylinder.
  2. Hydrometer 0-15Be.
  3. Plastic tub 25L.
  4. 20L jar/cask or bottle.
  5. Wire mesh 25mm.
  6. Rubber gloves.
  7. 30 wine bottles.
  8. 30 corks.
  9. Corking machine.
  10. Plastic food grade hose 10mm x 2m

Procedure Day 1:

  1. Obtain grapes and inspect for rot or mould, disregard rotten berries.
  2. Place grapes on wire mesh over plastic tub and rub with rubber gloved hand to remove the berries from the stalks.
  3. Add 2 grammes per litre of tartaric acid.
  4. Place stalks in compost.
  5. Take a 250ml sample of Shiraz grape juice and measure the Baume, call this X (Be).
  6. Using the formula (X – 12.5)/12.5 = Y x 100, returning a percentage.
  7. Measure the amount of grape juice in litres in the tub.
  8. Add Y % of water to the grape juice to obtain 12.5Be.
  9. Add 6g/Litre of tartaric acid per litre of water added.
  10. Add 50 ppm SO2 in water and gently stir
  11. Add yeast to warm water for 15min and add to grape juice in tub.
  12. Cover with a clean towel or shade cloth, keep at 20-25C.

The procedure continues on Day 2…

Procedure Day 2:

The cap of skins should have risen and a gentle pushing of the cap should see pink fluid with some f4roth arise from the cracks in the skin cap.

  1. Plunge the cap with your rubber gloved hand.
  2. Take a 250ml sample of grape juice and measure the density in Baume.
  3. Repeat above procedure twice a day.
  4. When the Be is about 6Be’ drain off the juice and press the skins. This can be done by squeezing by hand. Add all the juice together.
  5. Cover with a clean towel or shade cloth, keep at 20-25C.

Procedure Day 3:

  1. Remove cloths and re-test every day until the Be is at zero using the Hydrometer.
  2. The wine then needs to be racked off the gross lees to a vessel so that there is no ullage. In other words, siphon off the clear juice into another vessel from the muck that is on the bottom of the first vessel.
  3. To let the secondary ferment (malolactic ) occur? Is the question. Please note this may take several weeks or days.
  4. If so let the secondary ferment occur naturally or add a packet of malo bugs available from the winery supply shop.
  5. If not add 50 ppm SO2 and let settle for a few weeks.
  6. The wine is then ready to bottle.

After Malolactic

  1. Check if malolactic fermentation has occurred, testing is available at a winery supplier or the fizzing stops, the wine is ready to bottle.

Assessment: 24 bottles can be made using this method, assess each bottle of Shiraz wine for discolouration, texture, gradient colour and bouquet.

DO NOT LET THE STUDENTS CONSUME THE WINE.

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