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Here’s a lesson on The Times Table

Subject:

Math  

Grades:

3, 4  

Title – The Times Table
By – Jennifer Dalke
Subject – Math
Grade Level – 3-4
Lesson 5: The Times Table
Days Seven and Eight

Illinois State Goals
#6.B.2

Performance Objectives
A, C, E, H

Materials
— Velcro times table
— Small buttons
— Small mirrors
— Long piece of butcher paper
— Finger paints

Anticipatory Set
I will begin the lesson by pointing out a large times table that I will have constructed somewhere in the room (the numbers on the table will be attached with Velcro so that they can be easily removed). I will ask the students if they have ever seen this before. Where? Do you know what it is? What do you think the numbers represent? Look at how the numbers are arranged . . . do you see any patterns? I will be sure to reinforce the multiplication terms that they already learned). After some initial discussion, I will explain that this is called “The Times Table” and that it shows us all of the multiplication facts. I will tell the class that we can use the times table to find out the answers to multiplication problems quickly and that, eventually, they will be able to solve all of the multiplication facts by memory. Today we will be learning how the times table is set up, as well as filling in a portion of it on our own.

Guided Practice
1. First, I will take all of the products off of the times table, leaving only the factors that appear along the top and the left side. I will explain that the product of two numbers is placed in the box that is beneath and to the right of each of the factors.
2. I will ask the students if there are any boxes that we already know and can fill in. I will remind them of what we learned about ’0′ and ’1.’ I will have the students tell me where to fill in these numbers.
3. Next, I will point to the box for the product of 2 x 2. Does anyone know what number should go in here? How do you know? OR Lets draw a picture to find out. I will follow this same process for 3 x 2. I will ask the students if they notice anything about these products. I will help them to realize that multiplying by ’2′ is like adding doubles.
4. I will pass out different numbers of buttons, 0-9, to each student along with a small mirror. I will tell the students to arrange the buttons on their desks and to hold the mirror perpendicular to their desks, facing the buttons. What do you see?
5. I will instruct the students to count up how many buttons they see, including the real buttons and their images in the mirror. Then, I will ask who had 0 button, and I will call on a student to tell me how many buttons they see.
6. After each number, we will check to see if we have the correct product on the times table. If not, we will put it up.
7. When we have filled in the chart with the correct products, I will collect the buttons and the mirrors.

Individual Practice
1. I will pair up the students and assign each group a number, 0-9. Next, I will tell them that it will be the responsibility of each pair to figure out what products we need to complete the ’5′s row and column.
2. I will ask them if they can think of anything that comes in fives. I will lead them until they guess ‘fingers.’
3. I will put up a long piece of butcher paper that is divided into 10 boxes and numbered accordingly. I will have already written the following in each box: __ x 5 = __ OR 5 x __ = __ I will tell the pairs of students that the box they are to work in is the box that is the same as the number they were assigned. I will also put out paper plates with small amounts of finger paint on them.
4. Each pair of students is to make as many handprints on the paper as the number they were assigned. By counting the groups of five and the number of fingers, they should be able to fill in the blank spaces in the number sentences (the group assigned ’0′ may join in the 9′s group when it has finished its square).
5. I will give the students about 10 minutes to finish this. As they finish, I will conduct short interviews with each pair and send them to wash their hands. I will be sure to pick up all of the plates when students are done using them.
6. Using what they have done, I will have each pair of student’s come up to fill in their answers where they are appropriate.

Closure
When the times table is completed with the products the students found out, I will congratulate the students for filling in so much of the times table. I will pose some multiplication problems (ones that are filled in on the times table), and I will ask students to tell me the what they answers are. We will discuss which squares we still need to fill in and why. I will tell the students that we will be filling in the entire table over the next few days.

Assessment
— I will observe the students to see that they are actively participating in the guided practice.
— While they are working in pairs, I will walk around and do short interviews with each pair of students, asking them to explain their work to me.

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