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The Central Nervous System

Subject:

P.E. & Health  

Grade:

5  

Title – The Central Nervous System
By – Lauren Grochala
Primary Subject – Health / Physical Education
Grade Level – 5th

Lesson: The Central Nervous System
Unit: The Systems of the Body

National Standard: 1, 3
NJ Core Curriculum Standard: 2.1

I. Performance Objectives

      1. Cognitive – By the end of the lesson, the students should know the three parts of the nervous system and the five senses by the material we covered in class. They should also answer questions on a written test, scoring an 80% or better, that will be evaluated by the teacher.
    2. Social – During the lesson the entire class should participate in the activities and enjoy doing them by working with their classmates. Their attitude will also be evaluated by the teacher.

II. Material, Equipment

      1. Lesson plan
      2. 12 Targets
      3. Pens/pencil/markers/crayons
      4. Lemon
      5. Orange peel
      6. Perfume soaked cotton
      7. Banana
      8. Coffee
      9. Garlic
      10. Peppermint
      11. Onion
      12. Chocolate
      13. Pepper
      14. Paper bags(20)
      15. Pennies or other coins
      16. Clap chalkboard erasers
      17. A book
      18. Paper
      19. Stapler
      20. Ball
      21. Jelly beans
      22. 2 Bottle caps
      23. 2 Paper clips
      24. 2 Marbles
    25. 2 Ping pong balls

III. Diverse Students – no special needs

IV. Procedure

      1. Introduction (Time: 5 min.)

        1. Behavior – Students will get strikes against them, and if they get 2 checks next to their names they will not participate. When working in groups and doing a lot of activities, they must be on their very best behavior for the class to run smooth, or they will do work out of a book.
        2. We already talked about the brain which is one part of the nervous system and now we are going to go over the other parts: the neurons and the spinal cord.
        3. Did you know that by eating chocolate it causes the brain to produce natural opiates, which are chemicals that produce a feeling of well-being, which dull pain? Researches found that the chemical components in chocolate may make you feel happy.
      2. Content (Time: 10 min.)

        1. The CNS -

          a. Made up of brain, spinal cord, and neurons
          b. Control and communication center for your entire body.
          c. Job is to send and receive messages
          d. Controls all your thoughts and movements

        2. Neurons -

          a. The cells that make up the nervous system
          b. Long and stringy
          c. Carry electrical messages to and from your brain and the rest of the body
          d. The basic functioning of the nervous system depends a lot on the neurons
          e. The brain has billions of them and they have many specialized jobs
          f. Two types -

            a. Sensory neurons – take information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain.
            b. Motor neurons – carry messages away from the brain and back to the rest of the body

        3. The Brain (review) -

          a. Command and main information center
          b. Helps body respond to the information it receives from the senses
          c. What are the three main parts?

            1. Cerebral cortex – vision, touch, and other senses and movements you have no control over. ex. thinking
            2. Cerebellum – control balance and coordination
            3. Brain stem – link to the spinal cord and controls digestion, breathing, and heartbeat.

        4. Spinal Cord -

          a. Tube of neurons that runs up the spine and attaches to the brain stem.
          b. Extends from the lower part of the brain down through the spine
          c. Info. from nerves that branch out to the rest of the body and goes to the spinal cord.

        5. How the nervous system works -

          a. Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the functions of your body b. The nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from it to different parts of the body.
          c. The spinal cord carries the messages. It runs from the brain down through the back and contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ of the body.
          d. When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react.
      3. Teaching Strategy (Time: 40 min.)

        1. Come to your senses

          a. All senses depend on the working nervous system.
          b. Sense organs start to work when something stimulates special nerve cells called receptors in a sense organ.
          c. Once stimulated, the receptors send nerve impulses along sensory nerves to the brain.
          d. Your brain then tells you what the stimulus is
          e. Ask if there are any food allergies
        f. We have five main sense organs.

5 SENSES ACTIVITIES: STUDENTS WILL HAVE HANDOUT TO USE TO FILL OUT INFO…

1. Ears-hearing

      a. Every sound we hear is the result of sound waves entering our ears and causing our eardrums to vibrate.
      b. The vibrations are then transferred along
      tiny bones of the middle ear and converted
      into nerve signals.
      c. The cortex then processes these signals,
    telling us what we are hearing

ACTIVITY: MYSTERY NOISE

      1. Handout
      2. Close their eyes and see if they can guess
      what noise they are hearing.
      3. The noises:

        1. Shake pennies or other coins
        2. Clap hands
        3. Clap chalkboard erasers
        4. Tap a pencil or pen on a desk
        5. Close a book
        6. Crumple up paper or foil
        7. Stomp on the floor
        8. Tear some paper
      9. Close a stapler

    4. Go over the answers

2. Tongue-taste -

      a. Tongue contains small groups of sensory
      cells called taste buds that react to
      chemicals in foods.
      b. Taste buds react to sweet, sour, salty, and bitter.
      c. Messages are sent from the taste buds to the areas in the cortex responsible for
    processing taste.

ACTIVITY: JELLY BEAN FLAVORS

      a. Handout
      b. Give them different jelly bean flavors and
    see if they can guess what flavors they are.

3. Eyes-sight -

      a. Probably tells us more about the world more than any other sense.
      b. Light entering the eye forms an upside- down image on the retina
      c. The retina transforms the light into nerve signals from the brain
    d. The brain then turns the image right-side up and tells us what we are seeing

ACTIVITY: TARGET

      a. Groups of 2 – Have one person from each group get 4 different colored markers
      b. Each group of 2 will have 1 target
      c. Place the target on the ground and have
      the partner 1 stand near the target.
      d. Have the student hold out an ink marker
      with the tip pointing down.
      e. Have them close one eye
      f. Have the student move forward or back or
      side to side until you think the marker would
      hit the center of the target if it was dropped
      g. Have the student drop the marker when they think it is over the target center.
      h. The marker should leave a spot where it hit the target.
      i. Try 3 times with one eye closed and add up the score for the 3 drops. Now try it with both eyes opened-diff. colored markers
      j. Check to see which score was higher.
      k. Repeat for partner 2
    l. ON HANDOUT

4. Nose-smell -

      a. The cells in the lining of each nostril
      react to chemicals we breathe in and send
      messages along specific nerves to the brain.
      b. Very sensitive, researches suggest that smells are very closely linked to our
    memories.

ACTIVITY: EXPOSE YOUR NOSE HANDOUT

      1. Containers filled with smells at each station. Students will count off into groups of 5:

        STATION 1
        a. Mystery bag 1: lemon
        b. Mystery bag 2: orange peel
        STATION 2
        c. Mystery bag 3: perfume soaked cotton
        d. Mystery bag 4: banana
        STATION 3
        e. Mystery bag 5: coffee
        f. Mystery bag 6: garlic
        STATION 4
        h. Mystery bag 7: peppermint
        i. Mystery bag 8: onion
        STATION 5
        j. Mystery bag 9: chocolate
        k. Mystery bag 10: pepper

      2. Ask the students to identify the smell, if it is good or bad, and if they have any memories about the smell.

      3. Write their answers down and discuss

5. Skin-touch -

      a. The skin contains more than 4 million sensory receptors – mostly in the fingers, tongue, and lips.
    b. Gather info. related to touch, pressure, temperature, and pain and send it to the brain for processing and reaction.

ACTIVITY: DOUBLE TROUBLE

      1. Small object pairs, a bunch of objects
      2. Put one item from each pair into two
      separate bags. All together 5 pairs of bags.
    3. Have students go back into their groups(5) and each try the activity to match the objects

V. Assessment/Evaluation (Time: 2 min.)

      1. I will assess the students by testing their cognitive knowledge on the nervous system
    2. After I am finished the lesson and doing all of the activities I will hand out the mini quiz on the parts of the system.(attached)

VI. Closure (3 min.)

    Great job today. I hope everybody had fun. We learned a lot about our nervous system and our 5 senses. Can anybody tell me the three parts of the nervous system? Can anybody tell me some interesting facts you found out about your senses today? Ok great job and see you tomorrow!

VII. References
http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/3750/
http://kidshealth.org/kid/VIII. Evaluation

      1. Did I meet objectives?
      2. Did the activities work?
      3. Was the class under control?
      4. Did they have fun?
    5. Did the transitions run smoothly?

Nervous System
(please circle your answer)

1. Neurons carry _______________ to and from your brain.

    a. Messages b. Food          c. Water

2. The three main parts of the brain are the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brain stem.

    a. True          b. False

3. The ________________ is a tube of neurons that runs up the spine and attaches to the brain stem.

    a. Spinal cord b. Heart          c. Trachea

4. How many main sense organs do we have?

    a. 1          b. 4            c. 5

5. The tongue contains small groups of sensory cells called _______________ that react to chemicals in foods.

    a. Hairs          b. Mucus           c. Taste buds

6. The nose is very sensitive and researches suggest that smells are very closely linked to our memories?

    a. True           b. False

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