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This lesson is on proper body positioning and arm movements for running


P.E. & Health  




Title – Running:
Body Position/Use of Arms and Hands
By – Michele Rosina
Primary Subject – Health / Physical Education
Grade Level – 12

I. Performance Objectives

      A. Psychomotor: At the end of the lesson, students should position their body and move their arms as instructed while running around the track with a partner and the teacher will use a checklist to make sure that the students are running with the proper form.


      B. Cognitive: At the end of the lesson, students should know the proper body positioning and arm movement and the teacher will evaluate this by giving students a short quiz at the end of class.


      C. Social: Students should help their classmates to become better runners by offering them positive corrective feedback during the partner observation part of class.


    D. Affective: Students should feel confident that they will eventually be able to position their body and move their arms correctly when it comes time to run the triathlon.

II. Materials/Equipment

      1. Lesson Plan


      2. Track


    3. Student Checklist

III. Procedure/Time/M-I-A

      A. Dressing/5/M
      B. Roll Call, Announcements/2/M
      C. Warm-ups/5/A

        1. Quarter mile jog around track


        2. Stretches


      D. Review/5/I

        1. Skill: Cycling Skills Test Review


      E. New Skill

        l. Introduction/2/I

          Today I’m going to teach you the proper body positioning for running in the triathlon. It is important that you learn the proper mechanics to running so that you can conserve energy during this grueling event.

        2. Explanation and Demonstration of Skill/5/I

          When running, you want to focus your eyes on a spot 40-50 yards in front of you and glance up occasionally to see how the path will change. You do not want to do this too often however, because you may shift your pelvis and hips and land harder on your heels as a result. Focusing on a spot in front of you will help to keep your head straight. You want to make sure you have good posture during the run and you can check this by looking at your shadow. A five percent lean forward is ideal. You don’t want to arch your back or bend over at your stomach.


          Many people do not know what they should do with their arms and hands when running. Your arms and shoulders will be tight from the swim and bike ride by the time you reach the running portion of the race. Try to focus on swinging your arms forward, but keep movement in your lower arms to keep your muscles loose. Your elbows should be bent about 90 to 110 degrees and keep your hands loosely cupped. Don’t clinch your thumb in your hand, but rather place it on top of your index finger. Your arm movement should be rhythmic and easy. Your hands should stop at the midline of your torso. (D&D; proper running form-focus on body positioning and use of arms and hands)

        3. Practice/10/A

          I want everyone to jog around the track once. While running I want you to focus on leaning forward about 5 degrees and focus on a spot 40 to 50 yards in front of you, glancing up occasionally. (Students will run around track, I will stand half way around the track and give student’s feedback on how to correct their running positioning.)
          Next, I would like everyone to run around the track one more time, this time keeping in mind the positioning of your arms and hands. Remember, elbows should be bent about 90 to 110 degrees, hands loosely cupped, with your thumb on top of your index finger, not clinching your fists. Also, try to get into a rhythm with your arms.


      F. Strategy/2/I

        Conservation of energy. Remember that proper form in important so that you do not waste any extra energy, as you will need all of your energy to complete the triathlon.


      G. Rules/2/I

        Running Conduct: During the race you must run or walk the entire course. The only exceptions are for safety or when there is no advantage gained. It is your responsibility to know the course and it is to your advantage to know it well. Participants are not allowed to wear any sort of headset during the race. If you wear any sort of headset, cd player, mp3 player, etc., you will be subject to a time penalty. You are allowed to carry a water bottle during the race; however, you may not carry any containers made of glass. These containers are prohibited.


      H. Game Situation/15/A

        Partner Observation of Body Position: For the final portion of class, I want you to jog around the track four times with a partner. The first two times around, one partner will observe the other’s running form and arm/hand movement/positioning. The second two times around, you will switch roles and the other partner will be observed. Make comments to your partner to help them correct any flaws in their form. I will be at the same position I was at last time, and I will help you give feedback to your partners. You may begin. (Students observe each other running around the track.)


      I. Closure/5/I

        You should all know the proper positioning of your body and how your arms should move during the running portion of the triathlon. Your positioning is probably not perfect today, but just knowing how you should be positioned allows you to work on this on your own time. We will also be practicing running for the rest of the week. I want you to complete a short quiz so that I can see that you all understand how your body should be positioned during the running portion of the race.


    J. Dress/5/M

IV. References

      Scott, David. Dave Scott’s Triathlon Training. Simon and Schuster, Inc. New York,


      New York: 1986.

E-Mail Michele Rosina !

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