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A great lesson on Force and Motion as well as Measurement in Newtons

Subject:

Science  

Grade:

9  

 

Title – Forces
By – Lucia Riderer
Primary Subject – Science
Secondary Subjects - 
Grade Level – 9th
SUBJECT: Physical Science, CP
TITLE: Force and Motion
OBJECTIVES:

1. Students define and give examples of forces
2. Students measure forces
3. Students discover the relationship between force and motion

METHODS USED BY TEACHER:
1. Questioning
2. Discovering (lab activity performed in groups)
3. Cooperative learning (groups share their discoveries on step 2 with the class)

1. QUESTIONING

Motivation:

Show the class the following:
a. pushing or pulling an object
b. let an object fall
c. throw an object
d. squeeze a sponge or crumble a piece of paper

Questions:                                                Expected answer:
a. Why is the object moving?                     a. Because of a push or pull
b. Why is the object falling?                    b. Because of gravity
c. Why is the object “flying”?                   c. Because of the throw
d. What is happening with                     d. It’s changing shape
         the sponge (paper)?

Write all the above words related to forces on the board (push, pull, fall, gravity, change in shape).
Ask the class to give some more examples, and write them on the board next to the other ones.

Question: What do all this actions have in common?
Expected answer: They all make an object either move or change shape.

Question: What is FORCE?
Expected answer: Force is an action that makes an object either move or change shape.

2. DISCOVERING – LAB ACTIVITY
Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 will work on establishing one relationship (1), while groups 5, 6, 7, and 8 will work on another one (2)

Note: Before passing out the lab reports: 1) remind the class how to read the spring scale, and 2) review the group rules.

Title: Force and Motion
Purpose: to observe what factors affect the force applied on an object
Materials: 3 objects of different masses, balance, ruler, sand paper, spring scale, aluminum foil, tape

Procedure 1: Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4
Step 1: Measure the mass of object 1.Record it in your data table.
Step 2: Attach the object to the spring scale and pull it along a distance of 100 cm = 1 m. Read the force in Newtons (N).
Step 3. Repeat the above steps for objects 2 and 3. Record your measurements.

Data table 1:

object            mass (grams)            force (Newtons)
1
2
3

Observation and Conclusion: Complete the following statement
The _________mass an object has, the ___________force is needed to move it along the same distance.

Procedure 2: Groups 5, 6, 7, and 8
Step 1: Attach the object to the spring scale and pull it along a distance of 20 cm Read the force in Newtons (N).
Step 2: Tape the piece of sand paper to the table, then pull the object along the same distance (20 cm) on the sand paper. Read the force in Newtons (N).
Step 3: Repeat the above, using aluminum foil this time. Record your measurements in the data table:

Data table 2:

           surface type            force (Newtons)

Observation and Conclusion: Complete the following statement:
           The force needed to pull an object along the same distance depends on _____________________.

3. COOPERATIVE LEARNING

Write the two conclusion statements on the board. Have students complete them and state how they reached them.
Then draw the final conclusion of the lesson:
THE FORCE NEEDED TO MOVE AN OBJECT ALONG A SURFACE DEPENDS ON THE MASS OF THE OBJECT AND THE TYPE OR NATURE OF THE SURFACE.

End of period activities:
1. Students return the lab materials
2. Students copy homework assignment in their handbooks.
3. Students turn in their lab reports in the folders.

Note: Rewarding coupons will be given to the students who participated in the activity.
Timeline:
Bell Work: 5 minutes
Questioning: 10 minutes
Lab activity: 20 minutes
Sharing and drawing final conclusion: 10 minutes
End of period activities: 5 minutes

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