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“Each One Teach One” is a Flatfish stations activity (3-5)

Subjects:

Art, Language Arts, P.E. & Health, Science  

Grades:

3, 4, 5  

Title – Each One Teach One Flatfish Fun Activity
By – Heidi Schaffner and Mary Carla Curran
Primary Subject – Science
Secondary Subjects – Art, Language Arts, Health / Physical Education
Grade Level – 3-5
Other Lessons in Unit:

This is a 3-5th Grade Flatfish stations activity lesson in a K-5 Flatfish unit.

There are also two K-2nd Grade Flatfish lessons available on this site, one dealing with flatfish movement (www.lessonplanspage.com/SciencePEArtLAMDFlatfishDataMovementActivityK2.htm) and one dealing with data collection (www.lessonplanspage.com/SciencePEArtLAMDFlatfishDataCollectionActivityK35.htm).

Specific Objectives:

    Students will learn detailed information about six species of flatfishes. Students will discuss the differences and similarities among species. Students will relate information they have learned by teaching that information to their peers. Students will discuss information they learned from each other.

Georgia Performance Standards (GPS):

    S4L2a – Individuals of the same kind differ in their characteristics, and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.

Required Materials:

      Flatfish information sheet (below)
      Sand buckets
      Tweezers
      Fact sheets
      Laminated images (cut from fact sheets)
      Whistle or bell
      Word search puzzles (below)
      Crossword puzzles (below)
    Clipboards

Before the Activity Anticipatory Set:

    Students are divided into six groups. The groups are each given a different information sheet with facts about a different species of flatfish. Each group should read the flatfish information sheet they are given and go over the information together. The groups then go to a large area, like the gym or the playground. The teacher sets up six stations, one for each group. The stations are 15-30 feet apart depending on the amount of available space.

During the activity:

    While groups are waiting for their turn to begin visiting the stations, they will have a flatfish word search puzzle. At the end of the stations, there will be a crossword puzzle about the fish in the activity. Puzzles that do not get completed can be sent home or completed during a quiet work time.

Step-By-Step Activity Procedures:

      (Each group is given a bucket with 6 laminated copies of their flatfish, laminated. As groups move from station to station, they will collect a laminated fish from each station.)
      Step 1: The first group is sent to their station with a bucket containing 6 laminated images of their flatfish.
      Step 2: The second group goes to the first station to learn about fish #1. The rest of the class, while waiting to begin the activity, is working on the word search puzzle.
      Step 3: When the whistle blows, group #2 collects the fish from group #1, places it in their bucket, and moves to station #2 to review the information about their flatfish. Group #3 goes to station #1, listens to information and collects a fish.
      Step 4: When the whistle blows, Group #3 moves to station #2 and repeats the process. At this time, group #4 enters the activity at station #1. Continue until groups have cycled through each station.
    The table below shows where each group should be after each whistle blows.)
Step Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6
1

At station 1 teaching

At station 1 learning

Working on puzzle

Working on puzzle

Working on puzzle

Working on puzzle

2

At station 1 teaching

At station 2 reading

At station 1 learning

Working on puzzle

Working on puzzle

Working on puzzle

3

At station 1 teaching

At station 2 teaching

At station 2 learning

At station 1 learning

Working on puzzle

Working on puzzle

4

At station 1 teaching

At station 2 teaching

At station 3 reading

At station 2 learning

At station 1 learning

Working on puzzle

5

At station 1 teaching

At station 2 teaching

At station 3 teaching

At station 3 learning

At station 2 learning

At station 1 learning

6

Working on puzzle

At station 2 teaching

At station 3 teaching

At station 4 reading

At station 3 learning

At station 2 learning

7

At station 2 learning

At station 2 teaching

At station 3 teaching

At station 4 teaching

At station 4 learning

At station 3 learning

8

At station 3 learning

Working on puzzle

At station 3 teaching

At station 4 teaching

At station 5 reading

At station 4 learning

9

At station 4 learning

At station 3 learning

At station 3 teaching

At station 4 teaching

At station 5 teaching

At station 5 learning

10

 

At station 5 learning

At station 4 learning

Working on puzzle

At station 4 teaching

At station 5 teaching

At station 6 reading

11

At station 6 learning

At station 5 learning

At station 4 learning

At station 4 teaching

At station 5 teaching

At station 6 teaching

12

Working on puzzles

At station 6 learning

At station 5 learning

Working on puzzle

At station 5 teaching

At station 6 teaching

13

Working on puzzle

Working on puzzle

At station 6 learning

At station 5 learning

At station 5 teaching

At station 6 teaching

14

Working on puzzle

Working on puzzle

Working on puzzle

At station 6 learning

Working on puzzle

At station 6 teaching

15

Working on puzzle

Working on puzzle

Working on puzzle

Working on puzzle

At station 6 learning

At station 6 teaching

Closure:

    At the final whistle, groups gather either in open space or move back to classroom, depending on preference of teacher. Each group should have a bucket containing 6 laminated flatfish – the one they taught about and the five they collected from the other groups.

After the Activity (Assessment):

    In class, the teacher can lead the discussion about the facts the students have learned. A group is not permitted at this time to answer questions about the fish they taught to the group. The teacher can also ask more directed questions such as: “Which fish has five spots?” “Which fish were not flounders?” “Were these fish right-eyed or left-eyed?”

Flatfish – General Information

Flatfishes are easy to identify. In an adult flatfish, both eyes are on the dark (pigmented) side of the body, while the other side is eyeless and white. Flatfishes lie on the bottom with the dark side up and the pale side down. Flatfishes can change color to camouflage themselves to match the bottom. Their shape and color makes it easy for them to lie on the bottom and hide from both predators and prey. Most flatfishes swim close to the bottom by undulating their bodies. They have long dorsal and anal fins to help them move along the bottom.

Flatfishes do not start out life flat. The larvae look like most other fish. They are the same color on both sides, and have one eye on each side of the head. As the flatfishes grow, their color and pigmentation patterns change and one eye migrates across the top of their heads to end up on the same side as the other eye.

Some flatfishes are left-eyed and some are right-eyed. This means, some flatfishes have both eyes on the left side (left-eyed) and some have both eyes on the right side (right-eyed)! Left-eyed flatfish rest on their right side and right-eyed flatfish rest on their left side.

Many flatfishes are found on muddy bottoms in shallow waters. Some flatfishes migrate in the winter to deeper waters. Most feed on worms, crustaceans and other small bottom invertebrates.

There are more that 500 species of flatfishes, in 6 or 7 families. Flatfishes include flounder, sole, turbot, halibut, sand dab, plaice and tonguefish. The flatfishes included in this unit are from the families Bothidae and Cynoglossidae. Both of these families are left-eyed flatfishes.

Moyle, P.B. and J.J. Cech. 1988. Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology, Second

Edition. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, pp. 311-313.



Glossary of Terms

anal fin:

      Fin located on the posterior of the fish near the anus.

annelid

      (AN-eh-lid)

:

      A segmented worm belonging to the phylum Annelida.

arthropod

      (AR-thruh-pahd)

:

      An animal belonging to the phylum Arthropoda. Arthropods are characterized by jointed appendages and a hard exterior covering (exoskeleton).

barbel

      (BAHR-behl)

:

      A fleshy projection on the head of some fishes that may fulfill a sensory role or function as a lure.

copepod:

      Order of crustaceans found often in the plankton.

crustacean:

      An animal belonging to the arthropod class, Crustacea, which includes crabs, lobsters, shrimp and barnacles.

decapod

      (DEK-uh-pahd): An animal with five pairs of walking legs that belongs to the arthropod order Decopoda, which includes crabs, lobsters, and shrimp.

dorsal fin:

      A fin found on the dorsal (top) surface of a fish.

hypothesis:

      An explanation for observed events that can be tested by experiments.

invertebrate:

      An animal that lacks a vertebral column (backbone).

plankton:

      Organisms that drift in the ocean currents with little swimming ability.

polychaete

      (PAHL-eh-keet)

:

      A type of annelid worm belonging to the class Polychaeta.

phytoplankton:

      Photosynthesizing organisms that drift in the ocean currents.

undulate:

      To move in waves or with a smooth wavelike motion.

zooplankton:

      Animal-like members of the plankton.

Definitions from:

Karleskint, G., Jr. 2001. Marine Biology. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, pp.G.1-G.12.

Levinton, J.S. 2001. Marine Biology: Function, Biodiversity, Ecology, Second Edition. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 495-503.

www.dictionary.com


References

Dahlberg, M.D. 1975. Guide to Coastal Fishes of Georgia and Nearby States. University of Georgia Press, Athens, pp. 92-98.

Douglas, J., C.G. Ray, and R. C. Robins. 1986. Atlantic Coast Fishes. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, pp. 288-297.

Hoese, H.D. and R.H. Moore. 1977. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico: Texas, Louisiana and Adjacent Waters. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, pp. 255-263.

Karleskint, G., Jr. 2001. Marine Biology. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, pp.G.1-G.12.

Levinton, J.S. 2001. Marine Biology: Function, Biodiversity, Ecology, Second Edition. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 495-503.

Moyle, P.B. and J.J. Cech. 1988. Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology, Second

Edition. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, pp. 12-15. pp.311-313.


Flatfish Information Sheets


Bay Whiff

  • Bay whiffs are left-eyed flatfish (family Bothidae).
  • There might be small dark spots on their body.
  • They can get as big as 20 cm (8 inches).
  • They can live as far north as New Jersey and as far south as Brazil.
  • They also live in the Gulf of Mexico.
  • They like muddy bottoms.
  • They feed on small fish and crustaceans.


    Blackcheek Tonguefish

  • Blackcheek tonguefish are left-eyed flatfish (family Cynoglossidae).
  • They get their name because their shape resembles a tongue.
  • They are usually dark brown with a blackish patch on their cheek, which is why they are called “blackcheek.”
  • They do not have any teeth in the bottom of their mouth.
  • They can get as big as 19 cm (7.5 inches).
  • They can be found as far north as New York and as far south as Panama.
  • They also live in the northern Gulf of Mexico.
  • They live in shallow coastal waters and estuaries.
  • They feed on copepods.

    Fringed Flounder

  • Fringed flounder are left-eyed flatfish (family Bothidae).
  • The side with their eyes is brown, without any spots.
  • Their fins are sometimes edged with black.
  • They can get as big as 15 cm (6 inches).
  • They can be found as far north as Chesapeake Bay and as far south as Brazil.
  • They also live in the northern Gulf of Mexico.
  • They are usually found in very shallow water without very much salt (low salinity).
  • Their mouth size is much smaller than the other flounder.
  • They feed on crustaceans, polychaetes and zooplankton.

    Ocellated Flounder

  • Ocellated flounder are left-eyed flatfish (family Bothidae).
  • They are dark brown on the side with their eyes.
  • They have four large spots on their side.
  • The spots are ocellated (ringed).
  • Three of their spots make the shape of a triangle.
  • They can get as big as 25 cm (10 inches).
  • They can be found as far north as North Carolina and as far south as Florida.
  • They also live in the entire Gulf of Mexico.
  • They are common in shallow waters.
  • The largest specimens are in deeper waters.
  • They feed on shrimp and decapod crustaceans.

    Southern Flounder

  • Southern flounder are left-eyed flatfish (family Bothidae).
  • Their eyed-side is light or dark brown.
  • Their blind side is very light colored.
  • They are often spotted or blotched.
  • Young are found in shallow waters, including areas with low levels of salt (salinity).
  • The larger fish leave for the open waters in the fall to spawn.
  • They can get as big as 76 cm (30 inches).
  • They live along the coast from North Carolina to Texas.
  • They do not live in south Florida.
  • They feed on small fishes, crustaceans, and invertebrate parts.

    Summer Flounder

  • Summer flounder are left-eyed flatfish (family Bothidae).
  • They have many spots, but five are large and always in the same place. The pattern of the spots is like the side of a die.
  • They are also called the “fluke.”
  • They can get as big as 94 cm (37 inches).
  • They can weigh as much as 26 pounds!
  • They live inshore when it is warmer, that is why they have “summer” in their name.
  • In fall, they migrate to deeper water.
  • They are active predators- they seek out their prey.
  • They live as far north as Maine and as far south as Florida.
  • They also live in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
  • They feed on small fishes and shrimp.

    References for flatfish information sheets:

        Dahlberg, M.D. 1975.

    Guide to Coastal Fishes of Georgia and Nearby States

        . University of Georgia Press, Athens, pp. 92-98.
        Douglas, J., C.G. Ray, and R. C. Robins. 1986.

    Atlantic Coast Fishes

        . Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, pp. 288-297.
        Hoese, H.D. and R.H. Moore. 1977.

    Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico: Texas, Louisiana and Adjacent Waters

      . Texas A&M University Press, College Station, pp. 255-263.

    Flatfish Word Search

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BOTTOM

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EYES

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FLOUNDER

FLUKE

FRINGED

GILLS

LARVAE

MARINE

OCEAN

OCELLATED

SCIENCE

SHRIMP

SOUTHERN

SPOTS

SUMMER

TONGUEFISH

 





Note: The printable version of this lesson has a larger and more readable Crossword graphic.

 

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