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This is a lesson on Westward Expansion and Native American displacement
12, 11, 10
By – Kari Jones
Primary Subject – Social Studies
Grade Level – 10-12
Lesson Length – 1 Ã‚Â½ hours
- High School Core Area – United States History and the Constitution
- The student will demonstrate an understanding of the westward movement and the resulting regional conflicts that took place in America in the nineteenth century.
- USHC-3.1: Explain the impact and challenges of westward movement, including the major land acquisitions, people’s motivations for moving west, railroad construction, the displacement of Native Americans, and the impact on the developing American character.
Goal or Purpose:
- The goal of this lesson is to provide students a balanced look at “Indian Removal in the United States.”
- Students will understand the Trail of Tears and its impact on native peoples and the shaping of our country.
- Standard USHC-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the westward movement and the resulting regional conflicts that took place in America in the nineteenth century.
- Students will apply their knowledge on “Indian Removal” and the Trail of Tears, to analyze the effects of westward expansion on marginalized indigenous cultures.
- They will apply their knowledge through shared discussion and the creation of a letter that demonstrates their understanding of the topic.
Materials and Resources:
- notebook paper
- article handouts
- writing utensil
- Appleby, J. Brinkley, A, S., A, M., J, & A., D. (2009). The American Vision , Student Edition. GlencoeMcGraw-Hill
- Kent, D. (2005). The Trail of Tears: Cornerstones of Freedom. New York City: Scholastic, Inc.
- People and Events: Indian Removal . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html
Procedures and Activities:
- To begin the lesson, the teacher will review important topics covered in the previous lessons so that the students will have an understanding of the sequence of events leading up to the current lesson.
- This will include the Louisiana Purchase, railroad construction, and Manifest Destiny .
- Students will have the opportunity to ask any questions they may have.
- As homework, students were asked to read a PBS article concerning Indian removal . They were asked to write down two shocking facts or quotes and bring them to class for discussion.
- The students will then be split into groups of three or four and complete a Save the Last Word activity, in which each group member shares their quote or fact and waits until all other students respond, before giving their own response.
- During the small group discussions, the teacher will walk around the room, monitoring students and answering questions.
- After about 10 minutes of discussion, the teacher will open up the discussion of the reading to the whole class, transitioning into a discussion on personal accounts of the Native Americans who experienced the Trail of Tears.
- The students will return back to their original seats if they have moved around during the small group discussions. The teacher will then read aloud an excerpt from The Trail of Tears: Cornerstones of Freedom (below) so that students will have a sense of the personal tragedy that the Cherokee people experienced at the hands of the United States government and its policies and ideals.
- The teacher will walk around the classroom, exhibiting the illustrations in the book.
- Students may ask questions and discuss issues following the read aloud. Some question the teacher might pose to the class:
- What was the overall attitude of the American government toward native populations?
- What were the negative consequences of these policies?
- What would you have done if you were a Cherokee at this time in history? If you were a soldier escorting the Cherokee off their land?
- Do you think President Jackson should have done anything different? Do you have any ideas?
- Finally, the teacher will introduce a writing activity .
- The students will compose a one page letter from the perspective a displaced Cherokee to President Jackson, a military officer, or another member of the United States government, explaining their objections to displacement and human rights violations.
- Students may also choose to write a letter from the perspective of a United States government official to a Cherokee leader, explaining their reasoning for displacement.
- The teacher will roam the room, assuring that the students are on task and answering any questions the students might have.
- The students will have the rest of class to work on their letter and may finish their letter at home, bringing it to class the next day, ready to turn in to the teacher.
- The letter that the students write will be used as an assessment. The letters will be evaluated by student ability to recall major events and facts of Indian Removal and the Trail of Tears. Rubric below. Student discussion after the Save the Last Word Activity and the read aloud will also be used to assess student progress.
|Letter contains no errors in grammar or spelling. Letter is one page long.||Letter makes few errors in grammar or spelling. Letter is less than one page.||Letter contains several grammar and spelling mistakes. Letter is less than half a page.|
|Letter identifies several details from the Trail of Tears and Native American displacement during westward expansion.||Letter identifies a few details from the Trail of Tears and Native American displacement during westward expansion.||Letter identifies no details from the Trail of Tears and Native American displacement during westward expansion.|
|Letter clearly conveys an experience from the point of view of a Cherokee Indian or a US government official, and describes the effects of the tragedy.||Letter clearly conveys an experience from the point of view of a Cherokee Indian or a US government official.||It is not clear from which viewpoint the student is writing from.|
- The completion of the letter is homework for students who do not finish the letter in the allotted class time. Students must also be prepared to share their letters in class the next day with partners or in small groups. As the class period comes to a close, the teacher will wrap up the day’s lesson and review the main concepts.
- This lesson can be modified for ELL students and special needs students. Special needs students would be given a shortened version of the article and be given different instructions for their letters. Their letters would have more guidelines and necessitate less length. ELL students will have a shortened version of the article as well. They will be read the read aloud excerpt more than once and work with other students when composing their article.
People & Events
1814 – 1858
“Early in the 19th century, while the rapidly-growing United States expanded into the lower South, white settlers faced what they considered an obstacle. This area was home to the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chicasaw and Seminole nations. These Indian nations, in the view of the settlers and many other white Americans, were standing in the way of progress. Eager for land to raise cotton, the settlers pressured the federal government to acquire Indian territory.
Andrew Jackson, from Tennessee, was a forceful proponent of Indian removal. In 1814 he commanded the U.S. military forces that defeated a faction of the Creek nation. In their defeat, the Creeks lost 22 million acres of land in southern Georgia and central Alabama. The U.S. acquired more land in 1818 when, spurred in part by the motivation to punish the Seminoles for their practice of harboring fugitive slaves, Jackson’s troops invaded Spanish Florida.
From 1814 to 1824, Jackson was instrumental in negotiating nine out of eleven treaties which divested the southern tribes of their eastern lands in exchange for lands in the west. The tribes agreed to the treaties for strategic reasons. They wanted to appease the government in the hopes of retaining some of their land, and they wanted to protect themselves from white harassment. As a result of the treaties, the United States gained control over three-quarters of Alabama and Florida, as well as parts of Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky and North Carolina. This was a period of voluntary Indian migration, however, and only a small number of Creeks, Cherokee and Choctaws actually moved to the new lands.
In 1823 the Supreme Court handed down a decision which stated that Indians could occupy lands within the United States, but could not hold title to those lands. This was because their “right of occupancy” was subordinate to the United States’ “right of discovery.” In response to the great threat this posed, the Creeks, Cherokee, and Chicasaw instituted policies of restricting land sales to the government. They wanted to protect what remained of their land before it was too late.
Although the five Indian nations had made earlier attempts at resistance, many of their strategies were non-violent. One method was to adopt Anglo-American practices such as large-scale farming, Western education, and slave-holding. This earned the nations the designation of the “Five Civilized Tribes.” They adopted this policy of assimilation in an attempt to coexist with settlers and ward off hostility. But it only made whites jealous and resentful.
Other attempts involved ceding portions of their land to the United States with a view to retaining control over at least part of their territory, or of the new territory they received in exchange. Some Indian nations simply refused to leave their land — the Creeks and the Seminoles even waged war to protect their territory. The First Seminole War lasted from 1817 to 1818. The Seminoles were aided by fugitive slaves who had found protection among them and had been living with them for years. The presence of the fugitives enraged white planters and fueled their desire to defeat the Seminoles.
The Cherokee used legal means in their attempt to safeguard their rights. They sought protection from land-hungry white settlers, who continually harassed them by stealing their livestock, burning their towns, and squatting on their land. In 1827 the Cherokee adopted a written constitution declaring themselves to be a sovereign nation. They based this on United States policy; in former treaties, Indian nations had been declared sovereign so they would be legally capable of ceding their lands. Now the Cherokee hoped to use this status to their advantage. The state of Georgia, however, did not recognize their sovereign status, but saw them as tenants living on state land. The Cherokee took their case to the Supreme Court, which ruled against them.
The Cherokee went to the Supreme Court again in 1831. This time they based their appeal on an 1830 Georgia law which prohibited whites from living on Indian territory after March 31, 1831, without a license from the state. The state legislature had written this law to justify removing white missionaries who were helping the Indians resist removal. The court this time decided in favor of the Cherokee. It stated that the Cherokee had the right to self-government, and declared Georgia’s extension of state law over them to be unconstitutional. The state of Georgia refused to abide by the Court decision, however, and President Jackson refused to enforce the law.
In 1830, just a year after taking office, Jackson pushed a new piece of legislation called the “Indian Removal Act” through both houses of Congress. It gave the president power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi. Under these treaties, the Indians were to give up their lands east of the Mississippi in exchange for lands to the west. Those wishing to remain in the east would become citizens of their home state. This act affected not only the southeastern nations, but many others further north. The removal was supposed to be voluntary and peaceful, and it was that way for the tribes that agreed to the conditions. But the southeastern nations resisted, and Jackson forced them to leave.
Jackson’s attitude toward Native Americans was paternalistic and patronizing — he described them as children in need of guidance. and believed the removal policy was beneficial to the Indians. Most white Americans thought that the United States would never extend beyond the Mississippi. Removal would save Indian people from the depredations of whites, and would resettle them in an area where they could govern themselves in peace. But some Americans saw this as an excuse for a brutal and inhumane course of action, and protested loudly against removal.
Their protests did not save the southeastern nations from removal, however. The Choctaws were the first to sign a removal treaty, which they did in September of 1830. Some chose to stay in Mississippi under the terms of the Removal Act.. But though the War Department made some attempts to protect those who stayed, it was no match for the land-hungry whites who squatted on Choctaw territory or cheated them out of their holdings. Soon most of the remaining Choctaws, weary of mistreatment, sold their land and moved west.
For the next 28 years, the United States government struggled to force relocation of the southeastern nations. A small group of Seminoles was coerced into signing a removal treaty in 1833, but the majority of the tribe declared the treaty illegitimate and refused to leave. The resulting struggle was the Second Seminole War, which lasted from 1835 to 1842. As in the first war, fugitive slaves fought beside the Seminoles who had taken them in. Thousands of lives were lost in the war, which cost the Jackson administration approximately 40 to 60 million dollars — ten times the amount it had allotted for Indian removal. In the end, most of the Seminoles moved to the new territory. The few who remained had to defend themselves in the Third Seminole War (1855-58), when the U.S. military attempted to drive them out. Finally, the United States paid the remaining Seminoles to move west.
The Creeks also refused to emigrate. They signed a treaty in March, 1832, which opened a large portion of their Alabama land to white settlement, but guaranteed them protected ownership of the remaining portion, which was divided among the leading families. The government did not protect them from speculators, however, who quickly cheated them out of their lands. By 1835 the destitute Creeks began stealing livestock and crops from white settlers. Some eventually committed arson and murder in retaliation for their brutal treatment. In 1836 the Secretary of War ordered the removal of the Creeks as a military necessity. By 1837, approximately 15,000 Creeks had migrated west. They had never signed a removal treaty.
The Chickasaws had seen removal as inevitable, and had not resisted. They signed a treaty in 1832 which stated that the federal government would provide them with suitable western land and would protect them until they moved. But once again, the onslaught of white settlers proved too much for the War Department, and it backed down on its promise. The Chickasaws were forced to pay the Choctaws for the right to live on part of their western allotment. They migrated there in the winter of 1837-38.
The Cherokee, on the other hand, were tricked with an illegitimate treaty. In 1833, a small faction agreed to sign a removal agreement: the Treaty of New Echota. The leaders of this group were not the recognized leaders of the Cherokee nation, and over 15,000 Cherokees — led by Chief John Ross — signed a petition in protest. The Supreme Court ignored their demands and ratified the treaty in 1836. The Cherokee were given two years to migrate voluntarily, at the end of which time they would be forcibly removed. By 1838 only 2,000 had migrated; 16,000 remained on their land. The U.S. government sent in 7,000 troops, who forced the Cherokees into stockades at bayonet point. They were not allowed time to gather their belongings, and as they left, whites looted their homes. Then began the march known as the Trail of Tears, in which 4,000 Cherokee people died of cold, hunger, and disease on their way to the western lands.
By 1837, the Jackson administration had removed 46,000 Native American people from their land east of the Mississippi, and had secured treaties which led to the removal of a slightly larger number. Most members of the five southeastern nations had been relocated west, opening 25 million acres of land to white settlement and to slavery.”
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